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Tag Archives: Claude Shannon

Confusion and Diffusion in Cryptography


The concept of confusion, as relates to cryptography, was defined in Shannon’s 1948 paper. Generally, this concept attempts to make the relationship between the statistical frequencies of the cipher text and the actual key as complex as possible. Put another way, the relationship between the plain text, cipher text, and …

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Information Entropy

Shannon believed information entropy was a vital subject in information theory. His landmark paper included an entire section entitled “Choice, Uncertainty and Entropy” that rigorously explored this topic. Here we’ll cover just enough about information entropy for you to move forward in your study of cryptography. Entropy has a different …

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The Information Age

information age

You can often hear that we live in the “information age” which obviously makes information theory relevant not only to understanding cryptography, but also to understanding modern society. First, however, we must be clear on what is meant by the phrase “information age.” To a great extent, the information age and …

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